JPMML-Evaluator: Preparing arguments for evaluation

The central piece of the JPMML-Evaluator library is the org.jpmml.evaluator.Evaluator interface, which declares #prepare(FieldName, Object) and #evaluate(Map<FieldName, ?>) methods. This API dates back to earliest versions (i.e. 1.0.2) and is still going strong.

This blog post details the relationship between those two methods.

Quite naturally, data preparation precedes data evaluation. It involves three activities:

The JPMML-Evaluator library represents PMML values using subclasses of the org.jpmml.evaluator.FieldValue class (beware, the JPMML-Model library contains a class with the same simple name org.dmg.pmml.FieldValue). Most model types operate on scalar-type field values. However, there are some model types such as association rules model and sequence rules model that operate on Collection-type field values. Application developers are advised to employ the org.jpmml.evaluator.FieldValueUtil utility class whenever there is a need to create new or refine existing (e.g. change data or operational type) field values.

Option 1: Eager preparation

The classical approach is to create a new argument map, and populate it with prepared field values one by one:

public Map<FieldName, ?> prepareEagerlyAndEvaluate(Evaluator evaluator, Map<String, ?> userArguments){
  Map<FieldName, FieldValue> pmmlArguments = new LinkedHashMap<FieldName, FieldValue>();

  List<FieldName> activeFields = evaluator.getActiveFields();
  for(FieldName activeField : activeFields){
    // The key type of the user arguments map is java.lang.String.
    // A FieldName can be "unwrapped" to a String using FieldName#getValue().
    Object userValue = userArguments.get(activeField.getValue());

    // The value type of the user arguments map is unknown.
    // An Object is converted to a String using Object#toString().
    // A missing value is represented by null.
    FieldValue pmmlValue = evaluator.prepare(activeField, (userValue != null ? userValue.toString() : null));

    pmmlArguments.put(activeField, pmmlValue);

  return evaluator.evaluate(pmmlArguments);

This approach is the most versatile one. The userArguments variable could be any map-like data structure, including a query interface that fetches data interactively (e.g. prompts the end user). Application developers have full control over handling data preparation errors.

Typically, the pmmlArguments variable is serializable using Java’s serialization mechanism (i.e. the whole object graph implements the interface). This allows developing distributed applications where data preparation and data evaluation are separated from each other.

The Evaluator#prepare(FieldName, Object) method only deals with scalar-type field values. A Collection-type field value must be subjected to data preparation element-wise. Application developers are advised to employ the org.jpmml.evaluator.EvaluatorUtil#prepare(Evaluator, FieldName, Object) utility method when handling a mix of scalar- and Collection-type field values.

Option 2: Lazy preparation

The modern approach is to dispatch user arguments as they are:

public Map<FieldName, ?> prepareLazilyAndEvaluate(Evaluator evaluator, Map<FieldName, String> userArguments){
  return evaluator.evaluate(userArguments);

This approach is the most concise one. Essentially, the interaction with the JPMML-Evaluator library is reduced to a single line of code, which greatly simplifies application maintenance. The downside is less control over data preparation errors. The Evaluator#evaluate(Map<FieldName, ?>) method fails when the first problematic field value is encountered. In other words, the whole data record is invalidated, not just some field(s).

This approach is fully supported by JPMML-Evaluator version 1.1.4 and newer. Earlier versions implement the conversion of values, but do not implement the validation of values and treatment of invalid, outlier and missing values (see above). Even though the data evaluation operation is very likely to succeed with earlier versions, the result is unspecified in terms of the PMML specification (e.g. may complete successfully instead of failing with a PMML invalid field value exception).

The recommended type for argument map values is java.lang.String. A Java string can be parsed into any PMML type provided that it is syntactically and semantically correct. The parsing overhead is negligible. There is no need for “optimizations” such as pre-parsing Java strings to Java primitive values in application code. In fact, doing so may lead to a PMML type cast exception afterwards.

The JPMML-Evaluator library does not make any guarantees exactly when and where the data preparation operation is executed. This should leave room for implementing more sophisticated field value preparation and caching data flows in future versions.

The following Java source code approximates the lazy loading logic inside the org.jpmml.evaluator.EvaluationContext class:

private FieldValue getFieldValue(Evaluator evaluator, Map<FieldName, ?> arguments, FieldName field){
  Object value = arguments.get(field);

  // Return as-is
  if(value instanceof FieldValue){
    return (FieldValue)value;

  return evaluator.prepare(field, value);

Option 3: Manual preparation

The lazy loading logic provides a “loophole”, which makes it possible to circumvent data preparation altogether when FieldValue objects are created manually:

public Map<FieldName, ?> prepareManuallyAndEvaluate(Evaluator evaluator, Map<FieldName, Double> userArguments){
  Map<FieldName, FieldValue> pmmlArguments = new LinkedHashMap<FieldName, FieldValue>();

  List<FieldName> activeFields = evaluator.getActiveFields();
  for(FieldName activeField : activeFields){
    Double userValue = userArguments.get(activeField);

    FieldValue pmmlValue = FieldValueUtil.create(DataType.DOUBLE, OpType.CONTINUOUS, userValue);

    pmmlArguments.put(activeField, pmmlValue);

  return evaluator.evaluate(pmmlArguments);

This approach assumes that the application code takes full responsibility for data preparation. The replacement of PMML data preparation logic with application code should improve execution speeds (moreover, the majority of PMML converters appear to be generating no-op DataField and MiningField elements anyway). This approach is relatively more advantageous in situations where the data record contains a large number of fields, which are updated only partially (e.g. ten fields out of one hundred fields) between subsequent runs.